Table 1. Citizenship Policy in Europe, North America, and Australia *
  Australia United Kingdom Canada France Germany The Netherlands United States Norway Sweden
Years of residence 4 years, at least 3 years permanent residence 5 years, permanent residence 3 years, at least 2 years of permanent residence 5 years, continuous 8 years, habitual legal residence 5 years, continuous  5 years, permanent residence 7 years within the past 10 years, resident and work permit statuses count 5 years, residence across temporary and permanent residence permit
Language requirement yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no
Civics/country knowledge requirement yes yes yes yes* yes yes yes yes no
"Good Character" requirement yes no no yes no* no yes no yes
Dual citizenship yes yes yes yes no* no yes* no yes
Birthright citizenship yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no Upon application
Administrative fees for ordinary naturalization, in country (euros) €198 ($242) €850 ($1,040) €148 ($181) € 0 €255 ($312) €567 ($694) €552 ($680) €316 ($386) €146 ($178)
Naturalization rate (OECD 2007) 81% 67% 89% 47% 37% 78% 50% 70% 82%
Sources: European Union Democracy Observatory (EUDO) 2010 for European countries, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 2011 for non-European countries and "Naturalization Rate."
*For "normal"naturalization procedure (i.e. not through spouse or refugee status).


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